Thursday, 30 August 2018

Rose Person

The person in this painting is a Deleuzian Body without Organs, despite having the form of an Echorché (skinned anatomical figure) – their entire being is directed towards dissolving into the gesture of smelling the roses. Thus poised on the edge of dissolution every fibre of their being exists only to smell the roses and is thus pure action itself. This is why the lower parts of their body have more form than the upper parts, which are more painterly than form-based. 

Sunday, 26 August 2018

The Crustacean Contradiction Crucifixion

The plaster cast face you see in this drawing was taken from life, and yet, the opaque, solid plaster and its similarity to a death mask serve to contrast the gestural rest of the figure, drawn freely in veils of loose pigment. Through this gesture I set the typically mimetic portrait (consisting here in the fixity of the cast's facial features) against one based on idiorhythmic mimesis (the drawn body and its surroundings): The latter is unapologetically fragmented, an excerpt from a process of dissolution, whereas the former attempts to freeze time and capture both the specificity of facial features and concomitantly an essence to be extracted from them (in a rather phrenological manner). The cast thereby creates an uncanny simulacrum, while the person whom it purports to capture in its exacting manner stops resembling themselves immediately. They are crucified for the sake of being made into an icon fit for posterity to see. As such, this piece, laid at the center of the exhibition space, represents the unavoidable gordian knot at the heart of my project. Partly petrified and partly living rhythm, it is hard to tell which way the struggle is moving.

Thursday, 23 August 2018

Fields of Gold

One of the small pieces from the exhibition.

Metallic Lyra pencils and egg tempera on cardboard mounted on wood.

Saturday, 11 August 2018

Towards an Idiorhythmic Portraiture

Lana Svirejeva 
MscR Interdisciplinary Creative Practices
ECA Festival Exhibition
10 - 19 August 2018

The making of this polyptych-portrait is fuelled by my research into rhythm [rhythmōs] in the (pre-Platonic) sense of it being the way that a non-fixed form changes based on external and internal influences. Through this concept I seek to set in motion a copernican turn in portraiture away from the expression of individuality through the rendering of facial features, and toward its expression through rhythm. Dissolving the outdated approach of trying to capture only the appearance understood as ’essence’, or perhaps even the ‘soul’ of a subject could broaden the genre of portraiture in unprecedented ways. While in the final consequence this approach may remain utopian, I am experimenting with a process that seeks to realise this paradigm through a rhythmanalytical methodology of layering embodied gestural marks in a polyptych format. 

As the hand is a primary source of embodied gestural expression, the hands-on nature of drawing and painting is the reason I have chosen them as the vehicle for my rhythm-based portraiture. The hand constitutes our most universal tool and in this regard is like Gilles Deleuze's concept of the Body without Organs, which is a painterly, rhythmic figure whose organs emerge in reaction to its surroundings. At the same time it strives to dissolve into these surroundings and even into the concrete materiality of the work of art itself (by means of a smile, a scream, or an object in the artwork that it can be absorbed by). Hence my use of powdered pigments, which allows me to seamlessly switch between the mediums of painting and drawing. 

The embodied gestural process of painting and drawing also enables me to portray my subjects without them having to pose for me. This is because I use the rhythmalanytical method of being aware of my own body's rhythms while learning to observe and recognise these in others. This idiorhythmic approach (one that does not impede upon the life rhythms of others) resolves issues around the ethics and stiffness of much portraiture as it is often still practiced today. Philosopher Sarah Kofman gives further reasons why portraiture is an uncanny, problematic genre. She writes that a typical mimetic portrait sacrifices the real for its image and thereby warps it; the real changes and does not resemble itself anymore. It shows the real subject not as the ever-changing entity that they are, but rather as they should be. Thus it becomes an eternally still changeling of the portrayed, an image fit for posterity to see.  

Watch this space for texts about a selection of pieces in the exhibition!

Monday, 6 August 2018

Journey of the Eye

'Journey of the Eye', a recent egg tempera painting of mine, will be part of my installation at the Edinburgh College of Art's Festival Exhibition, opening on the 11th of August, and running until the 19th. – This – is a link for more information about the exhibit, which will be showcasing the work of postgraduate students from various programmes. Here I will just introduce some of my thoughts behind the making of this particular piece in order to give you a picture of what you may see once the show is open.

The making of this piece was fuelled by my research into rhythm in the (pre-Platonic) sense of it being the way that a non-fixed form changes based on external and internal influences. Particularly the paintings of Lee Lozano and the prose of Georges Bataille were inspiring in this regard, as both had a way of making body parts shift and morph from being one thing to resembling another in their work. In my piece I was working with the shapes of the body parts of the figure I depicted and made its rhythms echo throughout and even extend outward: the gap in the toes of the left foot mirrors the spread legs, the mouth of the figure’s head plays with the shape of the vulva, the hairs grow on various body parts all over and some have fallen, and the eyes become more distinct as they travel through the flow of the painting. Through the means of repeating body shapes I want to give female genitalia center-stage while also treating it holistically, even though it hides itself from one’s own vision and often is reduced to its sexual dimension in the gaze of others. The figure cranes her neck impossibly in a futile attempt to overcome her own embodied reality, while the eye of another, reminiscent in shape of the tip of a phallus, effortlessly stares at the exposed organ. I sought to represent this biologically-derived and socially-constructed double-faced nature of the vulva. As an interdisciplinary artist I still find that the medium of painting, with it’s receptiveness to embodied gestures, is an ideal medium for the investigation of such issues.    

You will be able to see this and many more works I made for the exhibition in my space in the North East Studio Building on Floor L, at the end of the corridor.

Installation View

Thursday, 26 July 2018

Artist Talk 16.05.2018

In his book on ‘Bad Art’, Quentin Bell wrote that he believes that it would be possible to say that there has never been a revolutionary who did not start as a traditionalist (Bell, 1989, p. 20). Perhaps I would not go so far as to call myself a revolutionary, but I am trying to enact a change, and some of you are acquainted with my past work and would have never thought I'd do anything like this here. So I thought it would be good to explain how this change came about.  

That is why I am conducting this talk in my studio, to start with a practical context of showing how the works were made. I found the boards in the space itself. They used to be nailed to close off the windows. You can see that I could not have made work that was any bigger than the height of the ceiling here. The setting they were made in is a background to the making of the paintings, and I also want to tell you more subtle reasons for how they became what they are now, the problems I addressed with them, and the research that went into them.  

My research interest is how to expand on portraiture, and here's why:

Many portraits are done from models that are still, posing laboriously for the painter, which I find ethically unsound, as it is a strenuous thing both for the sitter and the painter. Then there is also the question of whether the sitter gets paid or not, which can add another layer of tension. Even if the sitter does get paid, it is often an underpaid job, considering how painful and dull it can be to pose. On the other hand, when the painter is paid, as when he is doing a commission, the pressure of painting in front of a person who has certain expectations of what the painting will be like is a difficult thing to work with. The final portraits are often pained-looking or stiff as a result of this dynamic. Most other portraits are done from photographs, which usually also impose an eerie stillness onto the model in the painting. In either case, portraits are often painted realistically, as there is an admiration directed towards this, that 18th century art critic Diderot described as follows: 

"One sees the model where, strictly speaking, it is not, and one cries out in admiration" (OE, 507-8). 

Yet, French 20th century philosopher Sarah Kofman argues that this admiration is a mere way to mask over the uneasiness actually evoked by such a painting, as such a painting is more like a changeling of the person portrayed, and that such a resemblance "upsets all the categories that clearly distinguish between model and copy, life and death" (Kofman, 2007, p. 221). One looks over at a realistic portrait on the wall and it is in close proximity, yet it cannot ever be reached out to, the portrayed will never respond to you, as they are unnaturally fixed in the time and space that they were painted in. The portrait appears to have an unchanging, eerie life of its own. One might feel reminded of ‘The Picture of Dorian Gray’ by Oscar Wilde, where the protagonist’s life and the life of a portrait of him are exchanged. While Dorian lives hedonistically and indulges his every want he himself does not - and cannot - change, yet all his transgressions become visible in the portrait. The people around him remark upon his unchanging nature and clearly evince discomfort at the fact, though they also admire him for it. This reaction chimes well with Kofman’s take on the effects of a mimetic portrait. Dorian himself became the resembling, unchanging portrait painting in walking form. As both Kofman and Diderot write, such a portrait dies with the person, as indeed Dorian does at the end of the story. 

The reason these kinds of portraits are so 'dead' is that they were made in a way that tried to pin down the person they are representing, whereas people are much more changeable than the typical portrait makes them out to be, not just over the years, but even from moment to moment. Even Diderot complains about such a portrait of himself by Louis-Michel van Loo, posed for in 1767, and warns his grandchildren not to think that the portrait represents him truly: 

“In one day alone I had more than a hundred different appearances coming from what came from within me. I was peaceful, sad, dreaming, tender, violent, passionate, and enthusiastic […]” (Diderot, 2007, p. 104) 

Diderot was obviously troubled by how his characteristics were typified to create an icon or even an illustration of who he is. In the end, “[w]hat finally drives the rigorous imitator of nature mad is that he is unable to render the vicissitude of flesh, the ephemeral and fleeting character of all things, the absence of identity of the model that continually changes before his eyes and tortures him” (Kofman, 2007, p. 230). The question for a portrait painter setting to work, as Francis Bacon posed it, really should be: How are you going to trap reality or appearance without making an illustration of it? 

This is the most exciting question for each figurative artist, one that each one needs to figure out for themselves. Nevertheless, one always has one's inspirations. Which leads us on to ...

My research: 

Since I see the fixed nature of most portraiture as a problem, to expand on modes of creating portraits by representing changeability and liveliness I have been looking into rhythm. My  influences in rhythm-based portraiture have been the written portraits of Gertrude Stein as a starting point in thought, and the potential for movement in ancient Greek archaic statuary as a starting point in practice. This line of research is now leading me to start to perceive myself as a bit of a rhythmanalyst, but from my own angle by using drawing and painting as tools with the aim of enlivening portraiture. The theories I draw upon as motivators for this are Kofman's theory of the pharmaceutical in art, Lefebvre's writings about rhythmanalysis, and I am leaning towards starting research into Deleuze's concept of the Body without Organs. I will also draw up an account of painter Reima Nevalainen as a prime example of an expanded portrait artist.


This whole line of research began with my trying to find out what an expanded portraiture could possibly be in the first place. When I encountered Gertrude Stein and her written portraits, I knew that they certainly must a part of this undefined genre. Let me show you a bit from her portrait of Picasso.

[play recording]

In learning about how to understand these portraits of hers, I found it particularly helpful that their method was heavily inspired by Paul Cézanne's paintings. Basically, Cézanne was trying to arrive at the thingness of his subject by reworking his painting with each glance between subject and canvas. With each glance, the subject looks a little different, and Cézanne would paint over his last layer to match the new impression. He thus was trying to arrive at the noumena by layering the phenomena; The noumena, in phenomenology, is the true way things are, it is also unknowable, and we can only guess at it through the phenomena, the sensory impressions we can get in space and time (Merleau-Ponty, 1945). Cézanne's approach eventually led to cubism, which aimed to portray its subjects from many angles at once, and since Gertrude Stein is a cubist writer, who was friends with Picasso, this theory naturally influenced her greatly. She was composing her portraits in the same way as Cézanne, by writing in the continual present, each word written afresh without memory [counting example: one and one and one, …]. Like a darting, wandering gaze, her words flow from one to the other, their relationships to each other undulating and layering up to create a composition of the wholeness of the scene or subject through time. This made me understand that it is not a likeness or the capturing of a moment one needs to look for in portraiture, but rather the currents that a person, or anything, is made up of, their rhythm and continual change. This is how I would define the aim of an expanded portrait. 


Now I want to explain the impetus behind my own painterly process. 

In my view, an artist's task is showing people what they did not know they had to see – Lately, as I encounter historical figures whose lives have not been done justice to in their stiff portraits, I have a deep desire to show them in a way that gives them a lively rhythm. This also goes in hand with my long-time perception of art being a thing that strides beyond death, directly communicating to posterity what was closest to the hearts of people from all ages. To give an example of a rhythmical enlivening, I came across an image of the mummy of Ramesses ii and realised that his aquiline profile was formalised into him having a straight nose in almost all the thousands of representations of him.

 Initially this made me want to do a portrait of him in profile, but then I found it a greater problem that he was shown so stiffly in the Egyptian manner, having had a life as great warrior and an attractive, red-headed tall man. At the time I was also looking into the intersections between Greek and Egyptian culture and found out that the Greeks, when they were influenced by and still using the Egyptian Daedalic method of sculpting, broke out of this method by adding what came to be known as an Archaic Smile to their sculptures, to signify that their subject is lively. 

This is the essence of what I want to do as well. Therefore, as I was painting, I started out with a figure standing quite rigidly and based on an Egyptian sculpture, only to, at one point, break out of it and give Ramesses the gesture you can see in the painting now. Using ancient sculptures as a base for one's figures is a common practice of many painters, ranging from very classical ones such as Bougereau to more experimental ones like Bonnard.

Currently, in line with my interest in sculptural form as a malleable base for rhythms, I am researching Francis Bacon's work through Deleuze's concept of the Body without Organs. As far as I can tell so far, it is a body that is a "plane of consistency," which "provides a smooth space through which movement can occur. Rather than the unifying principles of a system of organization, the BwO's system of embodiment is constituted through principles of consolidation" (Rhizomes, 2002). Thus, in their work Anti-Oedipus, Deleuze and Guattari thereby argue that the Body without Organs is a framework for eradicating all forms of hierarchy, stasis, and fascism from our lives, even on the most intimate level, the one of the body. They liken the Body without Organs to an egg, whose flows have many potentials, which stands apart from a typical body that has limited traits and habits. The BwO is unattainable, but something to strive toward, and I feel that getting to know more about this concept will give me a way of thinking about the body that will allow for more deformations: After all, philosopher-poet Gaston Bachelard did say that the capacity of an artist is not to only form a figure, but rather, through his creative imagination, to deform it, not in a grotesque way, but in a way that creates a likeness in unlikeness, freeing us from the immediate perceptions of things (Oxlade, 2010, p. 89). 

My creative process even made me consider how a portrait artist could, in a way, be an archivist, who, when working with the pharmaceutical function of art, shows people not as they are but as they should be. To explain the pharmaceutical: Philosopher Sarah Kofman's notion of the pharmaceutical is concerned heavily with posterity, as well as with finding a serenity in one's approach to the body and its mortality. Hence, the pharmaceutical in art allows for an encounter with what she called the Bacchanalian, which is the intolerable, by masking it with the poetic, the Apollonian. Examples of non-pharmaceutical artworks she gives are realistic likenesses of people, as such paintings create the anxiety linked to their real-looking but unchanging nature in contrast with our own bodily vicissitudes. Another example is Rembrandt's Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, as it shows a body cut open and its inside exposed to the light, to the cold light of reason, just like the open book shown in the corner of the picture. 

The students' facial expressions are also not ones of empathy, but rather of cold inquiry and interest. Here's a quote that describes her views on the inside of the body and why it should not be exposed in this way, as it is not moral and thereby unworthy for posterity to see, especially in an artwork:

“What is aesthetically offensive inside the man without skin are bloody masses, excrement-filled intestines, entrails, all those monsters that suck and breathe and pump, formless or ugly or grotesque, and that smell terrible moreover … This body is veiled by skin that seems to be ashamed!” 
(Kofman, 1957, p. 293).

On the other hand, Chardin's still life with the gutted skate is in her view much more pharmaceutical. She does not explain why this is so much, other than through his poetic genius, but I am guessing it has something to do with the light's glow fading the entrails of the skate combined with the lightheartedness of the kitten. 

Nevertheless, she did leave room in her theory for a new pharmaceutical light, which  provides "serenity without salvation", without the illusion of immortality, and allows for a radical encounter with the intolerable, without masking it (de Armitt, 2008, p. 4). But she did not know how this could be done, she only anticipated it. 

What I want to do is fill this gap in her theory and not mask, but rather show people in their vicissitudes, but in a pharmaceutical way. My aim for my work is for it to be a radical encounter with secret bodily rhythms as empathically rhythmanalysed through my own body. Lefebvre, who wrote the book that founded the new field of rhythmanalysis in 1992, defined Secret Rhythms as "first, physiological rhythms, but also psychological ones, [such as] recollection and memory, the said and the non-said, etc." (Lefebvre, 2004, p. 18). Lefebvre defined the rhythmanalyst as someone who listens, first to his own body, learning "rhythm from it, in order consequently to appreciate external rhythms" (Ibid.) (Lefebvre, 2004, p. 20). 

One may ask oneself here, would not the expanded portrait be more of a self-portrait then? To draw back upon the earlier thought of likeness in unlikeness, there is room and even a necessity for this in portraiture, since, as mentioned earlier, Kofman also argued that the resembling, purely technical portrait dies with its sitter, whereas the one that is poeticised and pharmaceutical does not. A good example is Modigliani's portrait of Jean Cocteau, which I will read you an account of now: 

“Both Modigliani and Kisling painted Cocteau, and Modigliani’s devastating portrait captures the poet’s vanity. Cocteau paid for the portrait by Modigliani, but, claiming that it would not fit in a taxi, left it behind and never sent for it. At this time in his life, Cocteau was proud of his long, straight nose, which is shown here with a bump, so his pride may have been wounded. Cocteau later wrote, "It does not look like me, but it does look like Modigliani, which is better.”  (Pearlman Collection, 2012) 

Jean Cocteau’s remark points to a thought that Kofman renders of how posterity prefers the poet, the ‘bad portraitist’, who puts more of himself and his poetry into the painting than he looks outward: “To be a poet is to produce with complete freedom, without slavishly submitting to a model in order to reproduce it as rigorously as possible” (Kofman, 2007, p. 221). And yet, the difference between the poetic and the slavish portrait painter is not one of kind but of degree: It is the degree to which the painter feels the incongruity of existence, the anxiety produced by the incongruity “between the decomposing body and the mind that seeks permanence” (Nevalainen, 2016).  

At this point I also want to mention painter Reima Nevalainen, born 1984, Finland's Young Artist of the Year 2016. By looking at his artist statement and art in depth, I found that his work is an example of both points I argue are part of an expanded portraiture: Firstly, of using a malleable sculptural base and secondly, of being a radical encounter with the intolerable without masking it. 

The base that Nevalainen uses is a common denominator of all human being, arrived at by superimposing everyone with what he calls a 'paper-thin memory' (Nevalainen, 2016). The body of this common denominator is quite sculptural, as it is skeletal and mummified-looking. For him it is "analogous to the anonymous and timeless foundation that is shared by individuals. It is the background for the muscles, fat and sinews that define persons. It is the human being before an image of the self, or after it" (Ibid.). The constancy of this figure helps him show the body in many strange positions. His "attitude to depicting a human being is to try to forget concepts, names, learned behaviour models, function, convention and the self-evident. Therefore, people in [his] paintings often appear contorted, worn and bare. The anatomy disintegrates along with familiar positions and functions" (Ibid.). 

As for his work being an encounter with the intolerable, I wrote an essay about this called ‘The Pharmaceutical Non-Light’, wherein I analysed his work based on Sarah Kofman's theory. In it I argue that he is able to depict the intolerable without masking it by showing the inside of the body without exposing it to the light. His subjects are in a lightless, though not dark, space, illumined by what I called a non-light. The non-light serves only to enable us to make out the concrete materiality of the body, to enable us to “feel it through [our] eyes“ (Ibid.). He arrives at this non-light by looking so closely as to sink into the body, where he portrays the concrete materiality of the inside by using his canvas as a "magical interface", wherein "the material, upon attaching itself to the painting, turns into real matter and no longer just represents it" (Ibid.). An example he gives is how  "thick white paint that has absorbed sand turns into bone [...] when it dries" (Ibid.) In this respect it is significant that while his use of colours is limited, the ones he does use, like dark reds, yellow ochres, brown, cream, black, and white, represent the local colours of fluids and solids one could find in the body. Also, collaged fragments of body parts such as the teeth of ‘Search II’  can be glimpsed; Nevalainen turns the body inside out, it becoming formless in the process, as bones fall away or dissolve, his figures’ extremities flailing in the void-like space of the canvas. 

The other way he sees through a lightless space is when he looks from very far away. The lightlessness of this viewpoint can be understood through how Gertrude Stein describes wholeness of being in her written portraits. In her work ‘Gertrude Stein and Her Brother’, she describes how, during what seems to be a face-to-face conversation between her and her brother, that “sound is coming out of her” and “sound is coming out of him”, repeating these phrases in various constellations to the effect of creating a feeling of watching two people conversing in the continuous present, not hearing what they are saying, but merely the sound that is coming out of one or the other (Stein, 1969, pp. 1-143).
It is a non-specific, almost sculptural atmosphere that he works with in this far-distant point of view.

 In essence, he says that he wants "to see either so broadly that everything is uniform, anonymous, or so closely as to look beneath the surface, into a space where meanings do not yet, or no longer exist." It is really the human scale that is in between these points of view that is illumined by everyday light and carries with it personal narratives, anxiety, and false essentialisms that spring out of a desire for meaning and immortality.

Just to conclude with thoughts on my own paintings, I am happy about how, even though they were done with a naive consciousness, running parallel to my read and written research, they reflect upon it fully. To clarify what I mean by 'naive consciousness' I will read out to you Oxlade's 'Drawing a Robin', a passage from his writings about art and his wife Rose Wylie, which also relates nicely to portraying the changeable: 

Drawing a Robin

Robins scarcely ever stay still for more than a couple of seconds. They switch and click from place to place like animated film. So to draw a robin from life, as Wylie does, requires the sharpest of perceptual attention. The resulting drawing relies entirely on immediate perception unencumbered by knowledge of robins. So what has happened to her previous experience of looking closely at birds and at robins in particular? She seems without effort, and this is crucial, to be able to give her total attention freshly, without prejudice, to whatever it is that attracts her eye and be totally absorbed by its unique qualities. Knowledge – and this includes the background of art history as well as observation of the physical world – has been assimilated but somehow completely overtaken by the impact of the new experience. This process is very close to the working of the poetic imagination as described by Gaston Bachelard in The Poetics of Space. Replacing the word painting for poetry in Bachelard's text is to identify Wylie's work within a phenomenology of painting. The phenomenologist, says Bachelard '...profits by observations that can be exact because they are simple, because they "have no consequences," as is the case with scientific thought, which is always related thought. The image, in its simplicity, has no need of scholarship. It is the property of a naive consciousness; in its expression, it is youthful language. 

(Oxlade, 2010, p. 88)


What didn't work perfectly was the presentation of my project, as due to Max quitting work in the wood workshop, I was not able to get these works fixed on stretcher bars so they are not so bendy. If I were to present them outwith this casual studio setting I would naturally want them to be hanging properly on a wall.

What I'll do differently in the future is that, along with continuing to make more paintings, I want to expand my use of mediums, and collaborate more. This is because Lefebvre mentions that the rhythmanalyst pursues an interdisciplinary approach, and engages with smells, noise, and generally, all the sciences, such as psychology, sociology, biology, physics, and mathematics  (Lefebvre, 2004, p. 21-22). As steps in this direction, I am currently working on a portrait of Lady Grace Dalrymple together with a writer friend of mine. Another project I am working on is finding people to help me create a set of breathing automata casts, making the medium of the death mask more pharmaceutical by giving it the ability to breathe. 

So yes, that's all for now, thank you for listening! I'm happy to take any questions as well and to talk more specifically about the making of any of the pieces. The titles of the works are ‘Orans’ in the middle; ’The Smile at the Foot of the Ladder’, or ‘A Rosy Crucifixion’ to the right, and ‘Portrait of the Canal’ on the left.

Click for Close Ups of My Triptych

All of the Panels are 214 x 74 cm in size. 


The Smile At the Foot of the Ladder

Portrait of the Canal 


Barthes, R. (2002) How to Live Together – Novelistic Simulations of Some Everyday Spaces. Briggs, K (trans.), New York: Columbia University Press. 
BBC (2017). Francis Bacon: A Brush with Violence. [video] Available at: [Accessed 20 Apr. 2018].
Bell, Q. (1989) Bad Art. London: Chatto & Windus. 
Berger, J. (2015) Portraits: John Berger on Artists, Overton, T (ed.), London, New York: Verso. 
Bohm, D. (1968) On Creativity D. Bohm Leonardo, Vol. 1, No. 2. (Apr., 1968), pp. 137-149.
Bouguereau, W. ’Allocution de M. Bouguereau' in Distribution des Prix de l'Ecole de Dessin au Grand Theatre, 1899, (Bordeaux, 1899), pp. 17-18.
Carroll Beckwith, J. 'Bouguereau' in The Cosmopolitan, January 1890, Vol. 8. No. 3, p. 264.
Charteris, K.C., Hon. E. (1927) John Sargent. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. 
DeArmitt (2008) ‘Introduction’ IN: The Lifework of Sarah Kofman, [online], Available at:, [Accessed 3 April 2018].
Deleuze, G. (2005) Francis Bacon: The Logic of Sensation, London: Continuum. 
Diderot, D. (1965) Oeuvres esthéthiques. Paris: Garnier.
Forester, S. (2013) ‘Florence Academy of Art Student Handbook’, Florence, p. 4
Gaber, P. (2017). How People Show Themselves: History of Portraiture from Egypt to Rome. (Accessed 30 Oct 2017) 
Haas, R.B (1971) A Primer for the Gradual Understanding of Gertrude Stein A Primer for the Gradual Understanding of Gertrude Stein A Primer for the Gradual Understanding of Gertrude Stein. Los Angeles: Black Sparrow Press. 
Kofman, S. (1957) Nachgelassene Fragmente 1880-1882, vol. 9 of Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe, eds. and trans. James Strachey et al. London: Hogarth Press, pp. 303-8.
Kofman, S. (2007) ‘Conjuring Death: Remarks on ‘The Anatomy Lesson of Doctor Nicholas Tulp (1632)’’ IN: ‘Selected Writings’, Albrecht, T.; Albert, G.; Rottenberg, E. (eds.), Stanford University Press, pp. 237 - 241, 293 - 295. 
Kofman, S. (2007) ‘The Resemblance of Portraits’ IN: ‘Selected Writings’, Albrecht, T.; Albert, G.; Rottenberg, E. (eds.), Stanford University Press, pp. 218 - 236, 291, 293.
Kyger, J. (1991). Lecture on Gertrude Stein [online] Internet Archive. Available at: Joanne_Kyger_lecture_on_Gertrude_Stein_July_1991_91P073 [Accessed 17 Dec. 2017]. 
Lefebvre, H. (2007) Rhythmanalysis – Space, Time and Everyday Life. London, New York: Continuum. 
Lyon, D. (2015) ’What is Rhythmanalysis?’ [online] Youtube. Available at: [Accessed 17 April. 2018].
Macunias, G. (undated) 'Expanded Arts Diagram' [online] Macunias Foundation Inc. Available at: [Accessed 9 Dec. 2017]. 
Markopoulos, L. (2017). Painting Expanded | Art Practical. [online] Available at: http:// [Accessed 3 Dec. 2017]. 
McNiff, S. (2008) ‘Art-Based Research’ IN: Handbook of the Arts in Qualitative Research: Methodologies, Examples, and Issues. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, pp. 29-42.
Meskell, L. and Joyce, R. A. (2003) Embodied Life: Figuring Ancient Maya and Egyptian Experience. London and NY: Routledge. 
Miller, H. (1948) The smile at the foot of the ladder. London: Sheldon Press.
Nevalainen, R. (2016) About Working [online] Available at: [accessed: 18 Dec 2017] 
O’Reilly, S. (2009) ‘Representation and Presence’ IN: The Body in Contemporary Art. London: Thames & Hudson World of Art, pp. 17-47. 
Osberg, M. (2015) ‘The Visceral, Existential Portraits of Reima Nevalainen, Finland’s 2016 Young Artist of the Year,’, Available at:
Oxlade. R. (2010) Art & Instinct Selected Writings of Roy Oxlade. London: Ziggurat Books.
Pearlman Collection. (2012). Jean Cocteau | Amdedeo Modigiani. [online] Available at: [Accessed 20 Mar. 2018].
Schultz, L., (2005) ‘A Combination and Not a Contradiction: Gertrude Stein’s Performative Aesthetics’ IN: Performative Realism, Interdisciplinary Studies in Art and Media, Gade, R. and Jerslev, A. (eds.), Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press University of Copenhagen, pp. 7-17, 235-267. Seneca (2017). ‘Letter 6’ IN: Moral Letters to Lucilius [online] Available at: Moral_letters_to_Lucilius/Letter_6 [Accessed 8 Dec. 2017]. 
Simpson, Z. (2012) Life as Art: Aesthetics and The Creation of Self. Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefeld, p. 267-269. 
Stein, G. 1993 (1922). Geography and Plays. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press. 
Stein, G. (1951) Portraits and Repetition. New Haven: Yale University Press. 
Stolz, G. (1961) Founding the Expanded Arts, Reina Sofia, Madrid, 19.06 - 28.19. Available at: Accessed: 8 Oct 2017 
Titmarsh, M. (2012) Thinking the phenomenon of image through the poetics of contemporary expanded painting. Taylor & Francis Ltd, LIMES. 5.1 (June), p.42. 
Turner, C. (2010) ‘Through the eyes of a child’ Art Toys Tate Etc. issue 19: Summer 2010, Available at:
Unger Sherman, R. (1978) Francis Ponge: Mimesis versus Poiesis, IN: The French Review, Vol. 52, No. 1 (Oct., 1978), American Association of Teachers of French, pp. 62-72. 
Warr, T. (2000) ‘Preface’ IN: The Artists Body. London: Phaidon, pp. 11-15. 
Walker, M. (undated) Bougereau at Work [online] Available at: [Accessed: 3 April 2018].
Wood, C. and Cufer, E. (2012). A Bigger Splash, Painting After Performance. London: Tate Publ. 
Worringer, W. (1908) Abstraction and Empathy, Elephant Paperbacks, Ivan R Dee, Publisher, Chicago.

Image Bibliography

In order of appearance:

Louis-Michel van Loo (1767) Portrait of Denis Diderot [online] Available at: [Accessed 3 May 2018].
Mummy of Ramesses ii [online] Available at:, [Accessed 2 April 2018].
Museum Collection Fund (1279-1213 B.C.E.) Relief of Ramses ii [online] Available at: [Accessed 3 May 2018].
Xuan Che (2011) Archaic Smile [online] Available at: [Accessed 3 May 2018]
William Adolphe Bougerau (1898) The Assault [online] Available at: [Accessed 3 May 2018].
Bernini (1620) The Hemaphrodite [online] Available at: [Accessed 2 May 2018]
Bonnard (1900) La Sieste [online] Available at: [Accessed 3 May 2018]#
Rembrandt, (1632), The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp [online]. Available at: [Accessed 3 April 2018].
Jean-Baptise-Siméon Chardin, (1728), La Raie, [online]. Available at: [Accessed 3 April 2018].
Amedeo Modigliani, (1916), Jean Cocteau, [online]. Available at: [Accessed 3 April 2018].
Reima Nevalainen, (2016) Search II, [online]. Available at: [Acessed 4 April 2018]
Reima Nevalainen, (2017) Heavy Breathing II, [online]. Available at: [Acessed 4 April 2018]
Reima Nevalainen, (2017) Living off the Land, [online]. Available at: [Acessed 4 April 2018]